Vascular abnormalities can be identified as a malformed, ruptured, or entangled area in a blood vellelleading to the brain. Rare illnesses can damage the vascular system (network of blood vessels) in the brain of newborns, infants, and growing children. The majority of these illnesses are treatable.
TYPES OF VASCULAR ABNORMALITIES –
- ANEURYSMS – Aneurysms develop when a weak blood artery swells or expands like a balloon. An aneurysm can burst in the most dangerous situations, causing blood to flow on the brain’s surface. With a 50% death rate, a ruptured brain aneurysm is the most common and lethal vascular brain disorder.
- AVM OR ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATION– This is a deadly yet uncommon illness that affects roughly 3,000 people in the United States each year. This occurs when a tangle of blood arteries irritates another portion of the brain, resulting in a stroke, or ruptures, resulting in brain bleeding. An AVM, in contrast to a cavernous malformation, keeps blood flowing at a high pressure. Although it is less lethal than an aneurysm, a patient with this condition can continue to bleed and develop major neurological difficulties over time. AVM is thought to be a congenital disorder.
- CAVERNOUS MALFORMATION– It is similar to AVM, but instead of a tangle, it’s defined as a little ball of blood vessels that carries low-blood-pressure blood. A cavernous malformation, such an AVM or aneurysm, can rupture. While it’s the least dangerous of the three anomalies, it can cause seizures, brain bleeding, and severe neurological disabilities.
Most often, people with vascular abnormalities face no symptoms before the rupture occurs. However, some minor symptoms like disturbance in seeing owing to development of large pupils, Head growth out of proportion to your body, Intense headaches. It may also include stroke like symptoms.
RISKS OF VASCULAR ABNORMALITIES-
If you have the given conditions, then you are more prone to getting a Vascular Abnormality-
- Vascular abnormalities can link up to genes of people. If you have had a family history with Brain Aneurysms then you might end up with one.
- If you have High blood pressure, that might also increase your chance of having a vascular abnormality.
- Studies of neurological Disorders have shown women are more prone to aneurysms than men.
- A medical case of Vascular abnormalities in the past can also lead to the patient experiencing it again.
- Smoking can also increase the risk.
Regrettably, vascular anomalies are rarely diagnosed prior to a patient’s rupture. A vascular anomaly is more often discovered after the fact, using computed tomography imaging, often known as a CT scan. Brain scans, such as MRI scans and MR angiography, or MRA also might help in the diagnosis process. For more information, visit w-radiology.com.
CRANIOTOMY- The surgeon will perform a craniotomy (removal of a portion of the skull) to locate the aberrant blood vessel and halt the bleeding. When the doctor finds it, he or she will use a bobby pin or a clip to keep it from rupturing again.
ENDOVASCULAR SURGERY- Endovascular surgery allows the surgeon to make a small incision in the patient’s leg and thread a narrow catheter up the blood vessels to the brain. Once the catheter has reached the brain, the surgeon can fill the aneurysm with coils, which prevent blood from entering the aneurysm and protect the patient from future rupture.
EMBOLIZATION- In the case of a bleeding vessel in the brain, a paediatric interventional neuroradiologist may be able to help stop the bleeding by injecting various materials into the blood vessels. This procedure is known as embolization, and it can sometimes be enough to address the condition on its own.